INTEGRATED RAINWATER HARVESTING (RWH) AND GROUNDWATER SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY
Journal: i TECH MAG (Short Communication)
Author: Siti Nazahiyah Rahmat, Aziman Madun, Azra Munirah Mat Daud, Mohammad Sukri Mustapa, Mohammad Erwan Zaki Mat Radzi, Mohd Zainizan Sahdan, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The motivation of this study was minimizing usage of billing water via adopting integrated rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) and groundwater at Madrasah Tahfiz Darul Hikmah in Parit Kaspan, Parit Raja, Johor. Groundwater exploration using electrical resistivity method was conducted. Based on the 2-dimensional resistivity tomography result, the position of shallow tube well was pointed based on low resistivity and low chargeability. Tube well at 2-inch diameter was constructed at 20-m depth. Preliminary analysis was conducted, and a few contaminants were detected in groundwater and rainwater, making it unsafe for domestic purposes and need to be treated to an acceptable level. Multiple treatments such as sedimentation, sand and membrane filtrations, and dilution were applied to improve the groundwater quality. Few parameters were selected and analysed namely pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and heavy metals (i.e., Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu). Overall, the blended groundwater and rainwater water treatments efficiently reduced the concentration of pollutants in the filtered water to a compliance of recommended raw water quality standard.